Friday, May 22, 2020

Positivism in the Study of Sociology

Positivism describes an approach to the study of society that specifically utilizes scientific evidence such as experiments, statistics, and qualitative results to reveal a truth about the way society functions. It is based on the assumption that its possible to observe social life and establish reliable knowledge about its inner workings. Positivism also argues that sociology should concern itself only with what can be observed with the senses and that theories of social life should be built in a rigid, linear, and methodical way on a base of verifiable fact. Nineteenth-century French philosopher Auguste Comte developed and defined the term in his books The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. He theorized that the knowledge gleaned from positivism can be used to affect the course of social change and improve the human condition. The Queen Science Initially, Comte was primarily interested in establishing theories that he could test, with the main goal of improving our world once these theories were delineated. He wanted to uncover natural laws that could be applied to society, and he believed that the natural sciences, like biology and physics, were a stepping stone in the development of social science. He believed that just as gravity is a truth in the physical world,  similar universal laws could be discovered in relation to society. Comte, along with Emile Durkheim, wanted to create a distinct new field with its own group of scientific facts. He hoped that sociology would become the queen science, one that was more important than the natural sciences that preceded it. Five Principles of Positivism Five principles make up the theory of positivism. It asserts that the logic of inquiry is identical across all branches of science; the goal of inquiry is to explain, predict, and discover; and research should be observed empirically with human senses. Positivism also maintains that science is not the same as common sense, and it should be judged by logic and remain free of values. Three Cultural Stages of Society Comte believed that society was passing through distinct stages and was then entering its third. The stages included the theological-military stage, the metaphysical-judicial stage, and the scientific-industrial society. During the theological-military stage, society held strong beliefs about supernatural beings, slavery,  and the military. The metaphysical-judicial stage saw a tremendous focus on political and legal structures that emerged as society evolved, and in the scientific-industrial stage, a positive philosophy of science was emerging due to advances in logical thinking and scientific inquiry. Positivism Today Positivism has had relatively little influence on contemporary sociology because it is said to encourage a misleading emphasis on superficial facts without any attention to underlying mechanisms that cannot be observed. Instead, sociologists understand that the study of culture is complex and requires many complex methods necessary for research. For example, by using fieldwork, researchers immerse themselves in another culture to learn about it. Modern sociologists dont embrace the version of one true vision of society as a goal for sociology like Comte did.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Societal Factors Of Scientific Research Essay - 1207 Words

Benjamin Moy TA: Michelle Gertz Discussion: Friday 3 PM 16 December 2016 Societal Factors in Scientific Research Science has clearly influenced the larger society from both a social and technological standpoint. Climate change is a hotly debated issue in the current political arena due to the conclusions that climate scientists have drawn from data, and the modern ease of communication between people around different parts of the globe was made possible by applying scientific principles of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics. While science has undoubtedly changed society, the influence has gone in the other direction as well. Science is a human endeavor that is practiced by people—with personal goals, needs, and ideologies—who may acquire inspiration for their work from contemporary cultural, political, or social trends or may desire to provide knowledge to benefit society or fulfill its current needs. One critical response to this claim is that society cannot affect science because science discovers objective truth. If scientific conclus ions are in fact objectively verifiable, then the societal context in which they were learned is irrelevant since the same scientific laws should endure under other circumstances. Thus, these scientific principles could have easily been determined under different societal conditions. Otherwise, science would not be discovering the true nature of reality, for if society has affected science, then its results might be questionable. TheShow MoreRelatedTheory And All Essential Elements863 Words   |  4 PagesIn order to analyze and understand a theory, one must approach it in a scientific manner by utilizing the five-step scientific method to outline the theory and all essential elements. 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Though not fully understood, long-term happiness is mostly correlated with a sense of purpose and strong relationshipsRead MoreEssay on Research methods exam690 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Chapter 1: Introduction to research 1. Business research can be described as a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem, encountered in the work setting that needs a solution. *a. T b. F 2. Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in an organization is called basic research. a. T *b. F 3. Research done chiefly to make a contribution to existing knowledge is called basicRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On Children Through My Research Methodology1437 Words   |  6 Pageswould like to study the effects of divorce on children. I am mostly interested in my research methodology focusing on identifying the issues holistically that might be detrimental to the psychological or physiological health of children. I want compare the different experiences that each family has when dealing with divorce and measuring how each child copes with the separation of their parents. I would conduct a research design that is based not only on the issues that are related to divorce, but also

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A question arises as to how governments Free Essays

Employment is important for every individual. Employment is a source of income whether it is a private job or a government job. Depending on education, experience and caliber, individuals are offered jobs in specific cadres. We will write a custom essay sample on A question arises as to how governments or any similar topic only for you Order Now Every job carries certain responsibilities whether it is a labor job, clerical job or a senior management job. There are certain management principles that are required to be practiced   for every employee at every level of job functioning. Government and businesses cannot function without people and in fact efficient employees are the greatest asset for organizations to grow towards profit and development. A question arises as to how governments have a role to play in private sector. The answer to this question is, in order to bring transparency in private sector businesses, there are certain legal enactments i.e. Employment relations Act 2004, Companies Act, Corporate Insolvency Law and many other legal rules for every purpose of public or private sector.   These enactments contain rules and regulations which can be referred whenever there is a requirement for fulfilling a provision. For instance Employment Relations Act 2004 states about employee and employer relations and how these have to be maintained which is required to be followed by both private sector and public sector, which reduces a number of conflicts and disputes that could occur without these legal rules. The relation of employee and employer is slightly a difficult task to manage with, and at one point of time, appears much easier depending on the situation.   However, every employee and employer have to be careful with the jobs being held with in respective organizations. There are many human resource management books which detail and discuss about employee and employer relations within office environment as well with office related aspects of management. Management of relation involves both personal manners as well treating others with respect. In management, there are also barriers of culture, origin of a person and much in respect of working environment. Especially in industrial sector, where there are quite a number of workers and who carry grievances or demands in paying high salaries, asking for more number of leisure hours or bonus payments etc., The skill and efficiency of management is evident in handling trade unions of industries. Trade unions are very tough to deal with and when the demands of union are not met with, closure of factories, stopping production or working on strike, or slow production and such other activities are undertaken. Therefore, management of industries have to be extremely careful with industrial workers. Governments in order to assist industries have enacted Employment Relations Act 2004. This Act specially deals with labor laws and trade union rights.  Ã‚   UK government also introduced Employment Bill 2007 – 2008 which covers all aspects of employment law. This would further improve the effectiveness of employment law which would benefit employers, trade unions, individuals and public sector.   It also protects workers and encourages law-abiding businesses. Dispute resolutions is one area which is always required in workplaces.   In this regard, the Bill details about statutory procedures and related provisions about dismissal cases.   Apart from the above, the Bill clarifies about National Minimum Wage and which imposes penalties on non-compliance methods in respects of payment of salaries, calculation of arrears and also strengthens employment agencies. How to cite A question arises as to how governments, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Thanks free essay sample

Thanks Poems are one of the deepest expressions of humans inner vision and feelings, this fact sets poetry as one of the most thought provoking literary genres. An instance of this is a great poem called Thanks by William Stanley Merwin a poet from the twenty century. The makes the reader particularly wander around the real conception of gratefulness. Moreover, this poem contains a strong imagery that provokes in the reader a varied set of strong emotions. In the poem the speaker uses the word thank thirteen times. The over use of the word makes the reader understand that the persona is underestimating the xpression thank you. However, the reader is included in the description because the persona always uses the pronoun we to lead the statement we are saying thank you. Likewise, since the beginning the speaker starts using the word as a clich ©, expressed by everyone but in a hollow way. We will write a custom essay sample on Thanks or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The gratefulness is represented by shallow words rather than by an honest attitude. Even though in the poem the word denotes an expression of kindness and politeness, it appears lacked of meaning. It seems that everyone knows the importance of the word but at the same ime the word is used carelessly, this idea is very clear in the last two verses, we are saying thank you and waving / dark though it is. Thus, the reader can feel a sort of irony and perceive the personas critical tone in the use and misuse of the word thanks. As a reader I could behold carefully the importance of the word thanks not Just as a response to peoples actions but also as a pure expression of human gratitude. Individuals must grasp the real meaning of the expression in order to respond honestly to someones else actions whether they are good or bad. Moreover, I feel disappointment at the moment of reading it because our sloppy way of visualizing life and its little details, responds to the current situation of society. It seems that misconceptions has gone to our core without knowing the real transcendence of words. However, I keep the hope of getting rid of this simplicity that society has taught me regarding the use of words, and develop my sensitivity to the inner connection between my tongue and heart.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Blood Groups and Transfusions essays

Blood Groups and Transfusions essays When Europeans first experimented with blood transfusions in the 17th century, so many patients died that the procedure was outlawed in England, France and Italy. It is said that the Incas in South America began transfusing blood much earlier, and that fewer deaths resulted. If so, the reason, not understood at the time, may have been that nearly all of the Incas belonged to the same blood type, while the Europeans, like most groups of people, belonged to different and incompatible types. Today, blood transfusion is safe only because blood samples from the donor and recipient are tested to ensure that no dangerous transfusion reaction can occur from the In the ABO system, human blood is classified into four types: A, B, AB, and O. If your blood is type A, your red blood cells carry a protein called Antigen A and your plasma, a protein called antibody b. If you are type B, your blood contains antigen B and antibody a. Blood type AB carries both antigens but no antibody, while type O blood has neither of the antigens but both of These categories are important in transfusion because certain antigens and antibodies are hostile to each other. Shaped so that they can lock together, mutually hostile antigens and antibodies adhere in clumps that can cause fatal blood-vessel blockages. Generally, people with type A blood can safely receive blood from As and Os, while type B recipients are safe with blood from Bs and Os. People whose blood types is AB are known as universal recipients, because their blood is compatible with types AB, A, B and O. Type O people, on the other hand, are safe only with blood from type O donors, but they are themselves so-called universal donors, because they can give blood to anyone. In a routine count the bloods basic components, red cells, hemoglobin, whil ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Find Cars and Trucks With Propane Power

Find Cars and Trucks With Propane Power Propane is a common alternative fuel for fleets, buses, delivery trucks and police cars in the United States. Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), propane powers over 10 million vehicles worldwide, with 270,000 of them on the roadways of America. Unfortunately, you can’t just go to the car dealer down the street and order a propane-powered car. However, there are certified installers that can convert a conventional car or truck to propane with a retrofit package. The U.S. Department of Energy maintains this up-to-date propane information regarding the availability of light, medium, and heavy-duty propane vehicles and conversions, in addition to this searchable database for propane makes and models back to 2001. Propane Vehicles Offer Cleaner Emissions Testing of modern propane-powered vehicles has proven they are far cleaner than conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, converted propane vehicles are significantly cleaner than gasoline since they offer potentially lower toxic, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions. Propane Tax Incentives There are a variety of federal and state-wide incentives for vehicles that use LPG. This propane vehicle incentive database provides current information regarding the incentives and laws for propane-powered vehicles. Find a Propane Filling Station Near You There are over 1,200 propane filling stations in North America. This propane filling station database, maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy, provides current locations of stations in all 50 states. The U.S. Department of Energy also provides updated information on current infrastructure development, and a complete listing of public and private alt fuel fueling stations, searchable by fuel type is also available.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Othello Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 10

Othello - Essay Example Lago and Roderigo constantly use the words â€Å"him† or â€Å"he† throughout the first part of the play. When they finally start to specify whom they are referring to, they do so with nicknames that depict racism. Racial epithets used by the actors include â€Å"the thick lips† and the â€Å"Barbary horse.† Although the presence of Othello is there in the second scene of the play, he becomes vocal at the center of Act 1, scene III. Later, Othello is the last to arrive at Cyprus as depicted in Act II, scene I. He stands apart while Lago and Cassio engage in a discussion, in Act IV the first scene. He also assumes that Cassion has passed away when the Act V’s fight occurs. The status of Othello as an outsider may be why he appears to be an easy target for Lago. Although Othello stands as a racial and cultural outsider in Venice, his experience and skills as a leader and soldier are valuable to the state, and he serves as an important part of Venetian society. The senate and the duke demand Othello greatly, as evidenced by Cassio’s pronouncements that the senate â€Å"sent around three several quests† to search for him (I.ii.46). The Venetian government places sufficient trust in Othello to put him in complete political and martial command of Cyprus. Othello, during his dying moments, helps the people of Venetian to recall the â€Å"service† he gave to their state (V.ii.348). Those who regard Othello as their civic and social peer, such as Brabanzio and Desdemona, appear drawn to him because of his exotic characteristics. Othello admits and tells of his friendship with Brabanzio. He states, â€Å"Desdemona’s father loved me, oft invited me† (I.iii.127–129). The character manages to capture the attention of his peers using his speech. The Dukes respond to the speech he gives by describing how he captured the attention of Desdemona with the fables of